National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness Under contract to the Center for Mental Health Services
Fact Sheet Funding What's New

PATH Program


Annotated Bibliography

Prevention of Homelessness Among Persons
with Serious Mental Illnesses

July 2000

Books and journal articles listed herein are available from your local library or inter-library loan. Unless otherwise noted, all other materials are available from the National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness. Photocopying charges are $.10 per page; make checks payable to Policy Research Associates, Inc. If you have difficulty locating any of the materials listed in this bibliography, please contact the National Resource Center.

Order #: 7061

Authors: Arapahoe House.
Title: Project PROUD/Homelessness Prevention Study Case Manager's Intervention Handbook.
Thorenton, CO: Arapahoe House, 1997. (Manual: 75 pages)

Abstract: This manual documents Arapahoe House's intensive case management homelessness prevention program. Arapahoe House successfully bidded for a contract to implement and evaluate the Project to Reduce Over-Utilization of Detoxification Services (PROUD) in the state of Colorado. The model designed by Arapahoe House consists of an intensive case management intervention in which a team of case managers works in pairs or dyads with chronic users of detoxification services. These individuals are characterized by severe substance use disorders, and, in at least half the cases, serious mental illness. The population also includes those who are homeless, those at-risk of becoming homeless, and those formerly homeless. Intended outcomes of the program include reduction in subsequent use of detoxification services, and homelessness prevention. This manual describes the model itself and case management strategies used.

Order #: 7027

Authors: Aveyrt, J.M., Kuno, E., Rothbard, A., Culhane, D.
Title: Impact of Continuity of Care on Recurrence of Homelessness Following an Acute Psychiatric Episode.
Philadelphia, PA: Center for Mental Health Policy and Services Research, University of Pennsylvania, 1997. (Unpublished Paper: 19 pages)

Abstract: This paper examines the effectiveness of outpatient services delivered to people within 30 days of discharge from a psychiatric hospitalization. The sample consisted of 150 homeless adults with mental illness who were shelter users in the Philadelphia area. The study assessed the re-occurrence of homelessness following hospital discharge. Findings suggest that prompt connection with aftercare services was effective in reducing homelessness for people who used the shelter system a single time in the year prior to their psychiatric hospitalization. For repeated users of the shelter system, the recurrence of homelessness was not correlated to timely outpatient services following hospital discharge. The authors conclude this study to suggest that continuity of care is instrumental in preventing future homelessness among a portion of the homeless mentally ill population. For homeless mentally ill people with recent histories of repeated shelter use, greater diversity and intensity of outpatient services are necessary (authors).

Order #: 7779

Authors: Bebout, R.R.
Title: Housing Solutions: The Community Connections Housing Program: Preventing Homelessness By Integrating Housing and Supports.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 93-112, 1999. (Journal Article: 20 pages)

Abstract: This article describes the key features of a comprehensive housing program serving formerly homeless and at-risk adults with serious and persistent mental illness. The program combines intensive case management, integrated dual diagnosis treatment, and other clinical services with a range of housing options which are operated under the auspices of a single agency. For individuals with co-occurring substance use disorder, housing responses are guided by a four stage model of treatment and recovery. The authors offer a rationale for the continuum approach's relevance for high risk populations, especially those in poor urban settings where safety and harm reduction are a high priority (authors).

Order #: 1437

Authors: Belcher, J.R.
Title: Adult Foster Care: An Alternative to Homelessness for Some Chronically Mentally Ill Persons.
Adult Foster Care Journal 1(4): 212-225, 1987. (Journal Article: 14 pages)

Abstract: The author explores the use of adult foster care in preventing homelessness among individuals with serious mental illnesses. A qualitative research methodology is used to better document the needs of persons with mental illnesses who have become homeless. Categories are presented that explain the process of how former patients of a state mental hospital become homeless. Structure and a supportive environment are shown to be necessary in the community in order for some persons with mental illnesses to avoid homelessness. Adult foster care is suggested as a means of improving the continuum of care for persons with mental illnesses and providing a more complete care environment in a least restrictive setting than the hospital (author).

Order #: 3341

Authors: Breakey, W.R. and Fischer, P.J.
Title: Mental Illness and the Continuum of Residential Stability.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 30: 147-151, 1995. (Journal Article: 5 pages)

Abstract: This article discusses the importance of the prevention of homelessness among persons with serious mental illnesses. The authors describe a continuum of residential stability. At the lowest extreme of the continuum are those people who are chronically homeless and alienated from conventional community life -- street people -- who cause the most concern both to the public and to mental health providers because of their high visibility and the frequency with which they display florid psychiatric symptoms. The midrange of the continuum includes many people in which homelessness represents a crisis that can be relatively easily overcome with only a little help. The high end comprises those who have permanent and satisfactory housing. Thus, one indicator of the success of a community mental health service is the extent to which its clients are at, or move toward, the stable end of the continuum. The authors contend that one of the goals of continued research concerning homelessness and mental illness should be to develop a method to identify individuals at risk of homelessness and a set of actions to take when, or before, a housing crisis develops (authors).

Order #: 2754

Authors: Calsyn, R.J. and Roades, L.A.
Title: Predictors of Past and Current Homelessness.
Journal of Community Psychology 22: 272-278, 1994. (Journal Article: 7 pages)

Abstract: In this study, the authors examined various predictors of past and current homeless episodes among a group of individuals currently residing in several shelters in St. Louis, Mo. The authors included current psychiatric functioning and prior psychiatric history in the data analysis hypothesizing that these factors would correlate positively with chronic homelessness. Other characteristics included were age, race, gender, and prior service in the military, as well as socio-economic factors such as education and employment. Findings indicated that lack of education did predict length of time spent homeless, however, income did not predict homelessness or length of time spent homeless. Prior psychiatric hospitalization did not predict the length of homeless episodes, nor did level of current psychiatric functioning. In fact, psychiatric pathology could explain only a small percentage of the variance of chronic homelessness (authors).

Order #: 2775

Authors: CD Publications.
Title: Strategies for Success: A Guide to Helping the Homeless.
Silver Spring, MD: CD Publications, 1989. (Report: 49 pages)

Abstract: This report is a hands-on guide to running programs for homeless persons. Topics include management tips, building service coalitions, job training/placement strategies, homelessness prevention, and fund-raising tips. AVAILABLE FROM: CD Publications, 8555 16th Street, Suite 100, Silver Spring, MD 20910, (301) 588-6380.

Order #: 8346

Authors: Center for Mental Health Services, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
Title: Refocusing Upstream: Interim Status Report of the Center for Mental Health Services and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness.
Washington, DC: Center for Mental Health Services, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 1999. (DRAFT) (Report: 160 pages)

Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide the field with background and preliminary descriptive data concerning the Center for Mental Health Services/Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness. The interventions and preliminary descriptive data presented in this report indicate that identification of persons at risk of homelessness occurs at multiple points along the treatment continuum rather than at a singular portal of entry. Points of entry into the interventions appear to mirror the risk factors for homelessness and the target populations across the eight projects also reflect the spectrum of individuals who are at risk. All the interventions have five components in common that appear critical to the prevention of homelessness among at-risk populations. These components include: (1) connection or provision of a range of affordable, safe housing options; (2) flexible case management services with varying degrees of intensity; (3) linkages to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment; (4) money management; and (5) a range of community support services. (authors)

Order #: 2373

Authors: Center for Mental Health Services.
Title: Making A Difference: Interim Status Report of the McKinney Research Demonstration Program for Homeless Mentally Ill Adults.
Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, 1994. (Report: 125 pages)

Abstract: This report presents the preliminary findings of five, three-year research demonstration projects, funded under the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Public Law 100-77), to test the effectiveness of a variety of approaches to providing mental health treatment, housing, and support services to homeless adults with serious mental illnesses. Three of the projects took place in Boston, Baltimore, and San Diego, Calif. The two remaining projects were undertaken in New York City. Key findings include: homeless people with serious mental illnesses will use accessible, relevant community mental health treatment services; appropriate services and stable housing resources decrease homelessness; formerly homeless people with serious mental illnesses are an important resource; and substance abuse is a major factor in homelessness among people with serious mental illnesses. Program descriptions, research methods and client demographics are included for each project site, as well as the policy implications of the initial findings (authors). AVAILABLE FROM: National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness, Policy Research Associates, 262 Delaware Avenue, Delmar, NY 12054, (800) 444-7415. (FREE)

Order #: 7438

Authors: Clark, C., Henry, M.
Title: The Homelessness Prevention Project 1996-1997: A Descriptive Manual.
St. Petersburg, FL: Boley Centers for Behavioral Health Care, 1998. (Program Description: 77 pages)

Abstract: This report describes the Boley Homelessness Prevention Project which is part of the federal Homelessness Prevention Program. Set in West Central Florida, the program was developed in response to the community's need for stable and supportive housing for individuals who have experienced homelessness or been at risk of homelessness, have severe mental illness, and may or may not also have substance abuse disorders. Specifically, the intervention is the provision of: (1) assistance in finding an apartment and in negotiating a lease agreement; (2) support services aimed at helping people become established in their home, including anything from locating household supplies to budget assistance; and (3) linkages to services either within the Boley organization or with other agencies to meet the social, medical, clinical, and vocational needs and goals of the client.

Order #: 7780

Authors: Clark, C., Teague, G.B., Henry, R.M.
Title: Preventing Homelessness in Florida.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 73-91, 1999. (Journal Article: 19 pages)

Abstract: This article describes the essential elements of a housing intervention designed to serve people who are homeless or risk becoming homeless, have severe mental illness, and may have a substance use disorder. Characteristics of the target population, the community and the service system are examined, and how this program serves to address the issues. The effectiveness of this intervention appears to be the result of the organizational structure. The organizational structure and climate provide: (1) integrated services under one "umbrella"; (2) flexible, responsive service delivery; and (3) a treatment philosophy which builds on the strengths of residents through effective staff-resident relationships (authors).

Order #: 7437

Authors: Community Partnership for the Prevention of Homelessness.
Title: 1996 Report to the Community.
Washington, DC: The Community Partnership for the Prevention of Homelessness, 1997. (Program Description: 36 pages)

Abstract: This annual report defines the goals and details the activities of the Community Partnership for the Prevention of Homelessness. The Partnership seeks to carry out its mission out in the following ways: (1) through collaborative community building, mobilize and coordinate public and private resources that strengthen traditional supports of family and neighborhood; (2) through decision making guided by the principle of supportive inclusiveness, help others identify their own goals, share responsibility, obtain resources, reinforce success, and plan actions; and (3) through helping those who are homeless re-enter community and family life, create within neighborhoods a continuum of care. Included is information on homelessness in Washington, D.C., and descriptions of a number of programs the Partnership runs or coordinates, the most visible of which is the D.C. Initiative.

Order #: 7781

Authors: Connery, L., Brekke, J.
Title: A Home-Based Family Intervention for Ethnic Minorities with a Mentally Ill Member.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 149-167, 1999. (Journal Article: 19 pages)

Abstract: This article presents the background, development, and content of a manualized home-based family intervention for ethnic minority families with a seriously mentally ill member. The development of this homelessness prevention intervention is based on the premise that the client's home is the most effective venue for achieving long-term positive outcomes from mental health service. The service plan consists of strategies for coping with mental illness, the extended provider role, family skill development, family support services, family groups, and family respite. The agency within which this intervention is implemented is an Integrated Services Agency which serves the highest utilizers of the most costly services in the public sector.

Order #: 8245

Authors: Conrad, K.J., Matters, M.D., Hanrahan, P., Luchins, D.J. (eds.).
Title: Homelessness Prevention in Treatment of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness: Logic Models and Implementation of Eight American Projects.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 1999. (Journal:Entire Issue: 234 pages)

Abstract: In 1996 the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) funded eight, three-year knowledge development projects designed to prevent homelessness in high risk populations with problems of alcoholism, drug abuse, and/or mental illness. The projects selected are state-of-the-art representations of four types of homelessness prevention: (1) supportive housing; (2) residential treatment; (3) family support and respite; and (4) representative payee and money management. This issue presents articles that provide an overview of the SAMHSA program and descriptions of the eight projects.

Order #: 7776

Authors: Coughey, K., Feighan, K., Lavelle, K., Olson, K., DeCarlo, M., Medina, M.
Title: Project H.O.M.E.: A Comprehensive Program for Homeless Individuals with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 133-148, 1999. (Journal Article: 16 pages)

Abstract: Project H.O.M.E. (Housing, Opportunities, Medical Care, and Education) is an innovative, multi-faceted homelessness prevention program in Philadelphia designed to reduce individual, community/neighborhood, and societal risk factors for the recurrence of homelessness among individuals with severe mental illness and/or substance use disorders. Tailored to the needs and abilities of each individual, Project H.O.M.E. uses a combination of prevention strategies that includes street outreach, three levels of housing, extensive on-site services (education, employment, health care, addictions counseling, and social activities) and linkages to other services. Project H.O.M.E. also advocates for the homeless population through political activism (authors).

Order #: 7346

Authors: Culhane, D., Hornburg, S. (eds.)
Title: Understanding Homelessness: New Policy and Research Perspectives.
Washington, DC, FannieMae Foundation, 1997. (Book: 380 pages)

Abstract: This book serves as a forum for research that seeks to improve understanding of the nature of homelessness, its causes, and how to best address it. In three sections, this volume reviews the state of knowledge regarding counting and tracking the homeless population and reviews what is known about the many different causes of homelessness. The book also focuses on new research that suggests appropriate early intervention may prevent homelessness in many instances. The volume concludes with suggestions for next steps in research, programs, and legislation (authors). AVAILABLE FROM: FannieMae Foundation, 4000 Wisconsin Avenue NW, North Tower, Suite One, Washington, DC 20016-2804.

Order #: 2086

Authors: Culhane, D.P.
Title: The Quandaries of Shelter Reform: An Appraisal of Efforts to 'Manage' Homelessness.
Social Service Review 66(3): 428-440, 1992. (Journal Article: 13 pages)

Abstract: In this article, the author describes efforts to manage the capacity of homeless shelter programs in Philadelphia and assesses the impact of those efforts on providers and consumers of homeless services. Most reforms have focused on reducing the capacity of the shelter system by reducing the average length of stay of persons in shelters and by providing housing relocation assistance. However, according to the author, these efforts have been compromised by an inability to control the demand for shelter, particularly the rate of new admissions, and by the extent of need for housing assistance among homeless and near-homeless people in Philadelphia. Alternative methods of financing shelters are described, as are attempts to create a system of specialty shelter providers. The contradictions of shelter reform and the need for a more comprehensive homelessness prevention strategy are discussed (author).

Order #: 6257

Authors: Culhane, D.P., Averyt, J.M., Hadley, T.R.
Title: The Treated Prevalence of Behavioral Health Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System, and the Rate of Shelter Admission among Users of Behavioral Health Services
Philadelphia, PA: Center for Mental Health Policy and Services Research, 1996. (Unpublished Paper: 70 pages)

Abstract: This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=27,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49.3% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children were treated for a mental health or substance use disorder between 1985 and 1993. The rate of treatment for serious mental illness was 10.8%. Other data include prevalence statistics regarding women, men, adults with children, substance abuse, and veterans. Overall, 65.5% of adult shelter users were identified as ever having some mental health or substance use problem, treated or untreated. The study procedures yield estimates of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders, based on diagnostic encounters in clinical settings, and of the prevalence of homelessness among users of publicly reimbursed mental health and substance abuse services, based on shelter admission records. A preliminary analysis of the sequencing of behavioral health and shelter system use is reported, and the implications for prevention strategies are discussed (authors).

Order #: 1350

Authors: Federal Task Force on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness.
Title: Outcasts on Main Street: Report of the Federal Task Force on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness.
Washington, DC: Interagency Council on the Homeless, 1992. (Report: 91 pages)

Abstract: Representatives from all major federal departments whose policies and programs directly affect the homeless population with serious mental illnesses met over an 18-month period and issued this report to the Interagency Council on the Homeless. The authors present a plan of action that they believe reflects a vital first step toward ending homelessness among people with serious mental illness. The report: (1) outlines fundamental principles and the essential components of an integrated and comprehensive system of care for homeless people with serious mental illness; (2) identifies immediate action steps and more long-term systemic measures that federal departments can take to facilitate state and local efforts; (3) proposes new opportunities for states and communities to develop, test, and improve the organization, financing, and delivery of a wide range of essential services for homeless people with severe mental illnesses; and (4) recommends steps that state and local organizations can take to respond more appropriately to the needs of homeless people with serious mental illnesses. AVAILABLE FROM: The National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness, 262 Delaware Avenue, Delmar, NY 12054, (800) 444-7415. (FREE)

Order #: 8292

Authors: Fosburg, L.B., Dennis, D.L. (eds.).
Title: Practical Lessons: The 1998 National Symposium on Homelessness Research.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999. (Report: 437 pages)

Abstract: Practical Lessons is the result of the National Symposium on Homelessness Research: What Works? This symposium was held on October 29-30, 1998 and was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of this meeting was to examine the current state and future direction of research and evaluation. In addition, assistance was provided to policymakers and service providers in the development, implementation, and monitoring of housing and services that can more effectively serve the homeless population. Practical Lessons includes the revised editions of thirteen papers presented at the meeting by nationally recognized faculty. The topics addressed include prevention, special populations, clinical interventions, systems integration, case management, transitional services, permanent housing and employment, and consumer involvement. AVAILABLE FROM: National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness, 262 Delaware Ave., Delmar, NY 12054, (800) 444-7415; HUD USER, P.O. Box 6091, Rockville, MD 20849, 1-800-245-2691; or Web site:

Order #: 8248

Authors: Hanrahan, P., Oakley, D., Rickards, L.D., Luchins, D.J., Herrell, J.M., Conrad, K.J., Matters, M.D., Gallagher, C.
Title: Cross-Site Issues in the Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness: Conclusion.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 187-208, 1999. (Journal Article: 22 pages)

Abstract: In this article, the similarities and differences between the project sites of the CMHS/CSAT Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness are describe on the dimensions of: logic models, populations, outreach and enrollment procedures, theoretical perspectives, intervention components, stages of treatment and recovery, approaches to harm reduction, use of case management models, policies regarding the relapse and retention, and goals and anticipated outcomes.

Order #: 8083

Authors: Holter, M.C.
Title: An Intervention to Reduce Recurrent Homelessness Among Severely Mentally Ill Men: Benefit-Cost Analysis.
New York, NY: Columbia University, 1998. (Dissertation/Thesis: 171 pages)

Abstract: This study reports a benefit-cost analysis of the Critical Time Intervention (CTI) for homeless mentally ill men in transition from shelter to community. The clinical trial randomly assigned 96 sheltered mentally ill individuals to an experimental group receiving CTI or a control group receiving usual services. Subjects were interviewed prior to randomization and monthly for 18 months after discharge from the shelter. The major findings were that CTI led to lower costs by enabling more independent living, less use of acute mental health services, and reduced shelter use. While it was unclear whether the costs were offset completely in the 18-month period, when results were imputed for nine months beyond the observation period, the costs were completely offset, resulting in net societal benefits. The author concludes the findings support the development of CTI-model interventions for those making transitions from shelters to community living.

Order #: 2538

Authors: Homelessness Information Exchange and the National Coalition for the Homeless.
Title: The Essential Reference on Homelessness: A Fully Annotated Bibliography.
Washington, DC: Homelessness Information Exchange/ National Coalition for the Homeless, 1994. (Bibliography: 448 pages)

Abstract: This annotated bibliography provides references and abstracts on everything from child education, mental health policy, fair housing, and homelessness prevention, to legal issues, budget reviews, self-advocacy, and single room occupancy hotels (SROs). With over 860 entries, the bibliography includes many local, lesser known studies -- reports that often present the most current and direct glimpse of homelessness as it is evidenced in American communities. These consist of state and local coalition and government reports, local surveys, program manuals, advocacy and organizing guides, local assessment reports, evaluations, and planning documents. Also included are many reports of national organizations that monitor trends in poverty, housing employment, the status of children, welfare reform, and federal and state priorities on numerous related issues. The bibliography is indexed by both state and subject (authors). AVAILABLE FROM: National Coalition for the Homelessness, 1612 K Street, NW, Suite 1004, Washington, DC 20006, (202) 775-1322. (COST: $50.00)

Order #: 2666

Authors: Howenstine, E.J.
Title: Homeless Prevention: A Modern Challenge.
Cities 11(2): 83-85, 1994. (Journal Article: 3 pages)

Abstract: This article describes policy initiatives for the prevention of homelessness. The author contends that a positive homeless prevention policy requires action on three different levels: (1) an emergency program to meet the threat of eviction; (2) a substantive housing program to close the increasing gap between the supply of and the demand for affordable housing; and (3) a comprehensive social and economic approach to protect precarious households from falling into homelessness (author).

Order #: 2404

Authors: Interagency Council on the Homeless.
Title: Priority: Home! The Federal Plan to Break the Cycle of Homelessness.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1994. (Report: 126 pages)

Abstract: In May of 1993 President Clinton signed an Executive Order directing the 17 federal agencies that make up the Interagency Council on the Homeless (ICH) to prepare "a single coordinated Federal Plan for breaking the cycle of existing homelessness and for preventing future homelessness." A product of that effort, this document describes the changing nature of homelessness in the United States, briefly reviews the characteristics of the homeless population, and goes on to sketch the causes and outline the scale of the problem. It then turns to a concise history of programs mounted to assist homeless individuals and families in the 1980s. It evaluates those efforts and makes recommendations for new policies and programs to end homelessness. The authors contend that the ultimate answer to homelessness is also the answer to poverty (authors).

Order #: 2036

Authors: Jahiel, R.I.
Title: Toward the Prevention of Homelessness.
In Jahiel, R.I. (ed.), Homelessness: A Prevention-Oriented Approach. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. (Book Chapter: 13 pages)

Abstract: This chapter provides an assessment of the effort needed for, and the cost of, full prevention of homelessness in the short term. Three scenarios for the short-term evolution of homelessness in the United States are presented. The interactions of forces for prevention and forces for resistance to it are discussed in each instance, along with strategic considerations to promote prevention. In the third part of the chapter, prospects for the long term, 10-30 years down the road, are discussed (author).

Order #: 1616

Authors: Jahiel, R.I.
Title: Homelessness: A Prevention-Oriented Approach.
Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. (Book: 409 pages)

Abstract: The material in this book is organized into five parts. The first two parts focus on homeless people and the next two parts on the social environment. Part one, "Homeless People in Their Environment," summarizes current knowledge of homeless people. Part two, "Interventions Directed at Homeless People," draws on the knowledge of the homeless population gained in part one to assess services in relation to needs. Part three, "The Social Context of Homelessness," examines the social factors associated with the rise of homelessness. Part four is entitled "Interventions Directed at the Social Environment." Part five, "Methodology," assesses some critical methodological problems of studies of homelessness.

Order #: 1715

Authors: Jahiel, R.I.
Title: Preventive Approaches to Homelessness.
In Jahiel, R.I. (ed.), Homelessness: A Prevention-Oriented Approach. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. (Book Chapter: 14 pages)

Abstract: This chapter first describes the prevention paradigm as it applies to homelessness, then sketches three types of technical factors influencing prevention efforts related to homelessness (empirical data regarding homeless people and homelessness, theories of homelessness, and the tools with which different types of prevention strategies may be implemented). Lastly, the political factors and policy priorities that have influenced preventive approaches to homelessness in the 1980s are reviewed (author).

Order #: 8067

Authors: Kingree, J.B., Stephens, T., Braithwaite, R., Griffin, J.
Title: Predictors of Homelessness Among Participants in a Substance Abuse Treatment Program.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 69(2): 261-266, 1999. (Journal Article: 6 pages)

Abstract: In this article, risk factors for homelessness were examined prospectively among recent participants in a residential substance abuse treatment program for low-income individuals. Low levels of support from friends, greater depression, and recent substance use were bivariately associated with homelessness two months following completion. However, friend support was the only factor associated with homelessness after controlling for other significant bivariate predictors. The authors conclude that interventions to bolster social relations hold potential for preventing future homelessness.

Order #: 7782

Authors: Kirby, M.W., Braucht, N., Brown, E., Krane, S., McCann, M., VanDeMark, N.
Title: Dyadic Case Management as a Strategy for Prevention of Homelessness Among Chronically Debilitated Men and Women with Alcohol and Drug Dependence.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 53-71, 1999. (Journal Article: 19 pages)

Abstract: The PROUD (Project to Reduce Over-Utilization of Detoxification) Homelessness Prevention Project of Arapaho House, Inc., in Denver uses a pair or dyad of case managers to address the individualized client needs of a target population characterized chiefly by chronic utilization of public detoxification services. Based on a Stages of Change model, PROUD aims to offer a cost-effective managed-care strategy for reducing over-utilization while simultaneously coordinating a more optimal mix of substance abuse and housing services. The intervention model focuses on intensive contact with clients, including recruitment, engagement, relationship- and skills-building, housing stabilization, and advocacy. Informal evaluations have shown PROUD to be effective in reducing the number of days and the number of episodes of detoxification.

Order #: 3106

Authors: Lezak, A.D., Edgar, E.
Title: Preventing Homelessness Among People with Serious Mental Illnesses.
Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, 1996. (Report: 50 pages)

Abstract: This paper has three objectives: (1) to demonstrate the need for prevention-oriented approaches to end homelessness among people who have serious mental illnesses; (2) to make recommendations regarding state-level strategies to strengthen prevention efforts; and (3) to give examples of specific state-supported initiatives and local efforts that are assisting people who have a serious mental illness to avoid homelessness. Many of these state and local initiatives serve to expand the reach of federal homelessness assistance programs. The report is designed primarily for those involved in planning and administering mental health programs and services for homeless people (authors).

Order #: 6433

Authors: Lindblom, E.N.
Title: Preventing Homelessness.
In Baumohl, J. (ed.), Homelessness In America. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 187-200, 1996. (Book Chapter: 14 pages)

Abstract: The author explains that prevention is needed to help solve the homeless problem, not to just alleviate it. Issues examined include: cost-effectiveness and targeting those most at risk; preventing homelessness at the sources; keeping people in shared housing; assisting those displaced from condemned or destroyed buildings; transition assistance; prevention strategies for institutional releases; discharges from mental hospitals; and emancipation from foster care. The interventions discussed in this chapter offer a variety of community-based approaches that could be put to use to immediately to prevent people from becoming homeless. The author contends that in order to seriously eliminate homelessness as a significant national problem, a prevention-based strategy offers the most practical and promising way to proceed.

Order #: 1297

Authors: Lindblom, E.N.
Title: Toward a Comprehensive Homelessness-Prevention Strategy.
Housing Policy Debate 2(3): 957-1025, 1991. (Journal Article: 69 pages)

Abstract: The initial response to homelessness in the United States has focused on stop and go measures to address the dire need for emergency food and shelter, and then on providing additional assistance to homeless persons to help them move out of homelessness. New preventive measures to help people avoid becoming homeless have largely been ignored. But now that efforts to provide emergency food and shelter are well under way throughout the country, many more experts, policymakers, and service organizations have begun focusing on homelessness prevention. Nevertheless, actual prevention efforts are still tentative and somewhat haphazard. In support of a more rapid expansion of effective homelessness prevention activities, this paper discusses the benefits of prevention, develops an initial framework for a comprehensive homelessness-prevention strategy, and, using this framework, evaluates existing prevention efforts and suggests new initiatives.

Order #: 3386

Authors: Marin, M.V. and Vacha, E.F.
Title: Self Help Strategies and Resources Among People at Risk of Homelessness: Empirical Findings and Social Services Policy.
Social Work 39(6): 649-657, 1995. (Journal Article: 9 pages)

Abstract: Very little is known about self-help strategies and resources that exist among poor households and their role in the prevention of homelessness. This study examines the characteristics of homeless people who stay with their friends and relatives. It also examines their relationships with those who house them. Survey data revealed differences in the helping strategies and resources of those who double up. The respondents' gender, race, presence of children, and dependence on public assistance appear to influence the opportunities to double up with friends or relatives. Recommendations are made to enhance the living conditions among doubled-up households so they may continue to serve as a foundation in the prevention of homelessness (authors).

Order #: 7811

Authors: McBride, T.D., Calsyn, R.J., Morse, G.A., Klinkenberg, W.D., Allen, G.A.
Title: Duration of Homeless Spells Among Severely Mentally Ill Individuals: A Survival Analysis.
Journal of Community Psychiatry 26(5): 473-490, 1998. (Journal Article: 16 pages)

Abstract: This article describes a study that aimed to identify predictors of the duration of homeless spells among persons with severe mental illness. The sample consisted of 215 individuals who had participated in two experiments evaluating the effectiveness of various treatment programs for homeless individuals. Persons who received assertive community treatment exited homelessness sooner than individuals who received brokered case management, outpatient treatment, or services from a drop-in center. More assistance in finding and maintaining housing were especially predictive of shorter homeless spells. Inclusion of variables which varied over time reduced the impact of many of the demographic variables in the model. The authors conclude that, in general, persons who received more services exited homelessness sooner (authors).

Order #: 257

Authors: Morse, G.
Title: A Contemporary Assessment of Urban Homelessness: Implications for Social Change.
St. Louis, MO: University of Missouri, 1986. (Report: 188 pages)

Abstract: This report looks at homelessness from a systems perspective. The author identifies six levels of social organization and lists characteristics, causes, and problems of homelessness, as well as solutions, in relation to the multilevel framework. A literature review concerning the causes of homelessness, including mental health issues is presented as is a new systematic causal model drawing distinctions between forces which initiate homelessness and those which maintain it. A discussion of identified causes is presented as well as a summary of problems requiring social intervention. The author suggests three categories of social change (immediate assistance, status change, and prevention) and recommends a number of social interventions.

Order #: 7850

Authors: National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Mental Disorders Prevention Research.
Title: Priorities for Prevention Research at NIMH.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, 1998. (Report: 56 pages)

Abstract: The authors reviewed and analyzed the FY 1996 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) prevention research portfolio. All prevention grant abstracts judged by NIMH staff as relevant to pre-intervention, intervention, and services research were reviewed and were characterized by topic area, target group populations, age and type of research subjects, disorders or conditions, and methods. Based on this work key gaps and opportunities in prevention research are identified (authors).

Order #: 3052

Authors: National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse.
Title: NIMH/NIAA Research Conference: Paper Presentations.
Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1991. (Conference Summary: 172 pages)

Abstract: This document contains papers presented at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAA) Research Conference in January 1991. Paper topics include: housing, poverty, prevention of homelessness, and the impact of substance abuse on homeless families.

Order #: 8517

Authors: Office of Inspector General.
Title: Homeless Prevention Programs.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, 1992. (Report: 24 pages)

Abstract: The purpose of this inspection was to determine the overall effectiveness of selected homeless prevention programs and to compare the effectiveness of prevention programs which provide case management services to those which do not. The findings of the inspection were: homeless prevention programs keep families in their homes; the automatic or routine provision of case management services did not increase the likelihood of a functional family remaining in permanent housing; the average benefit paid by the eight homeless programs examined was one-sixth the cost of a typical stay in a shelter; and the homeless prevention programs examined assist only a small portion of needy families (authors).

Order #: 1398

Authors: Office of Program Planning, Analysis and Development; and Office of Shelter and Supported Housing Programs.
Title: The Homelessness Prevention Program: Outcomes and Effectiveness.
Albany, NY: New York State Department of Social Services, 1990. (Report: 70 pages)

Abstract: In New York State there are currently 25 not-for-profit homelessness prevention services. The majority of these programs began servicing clients between March and May of 1990. Most of the clients served by the Homelessness Prevention Program are in the late stages of the eviction process. In all but two programs, the majority of clients have been served with eviction notices or received eviction notices while in the program. In addition to offering program descriptions, this report provides estimates on the number of prevented evictions and prevented homelessness, the cost efficiency of these programs and the net savings associated with the Homelessness Prevention Program.

Order #: 6280

Authors: Rhode Island Emergency Food and Shelter Board.
Title: Policy Report and Recommendations: Task Force on Serving Rhode Island's Homeless.
Providence, RI: Rhode Island Emergency Food and Shelter Board, 1993. (Report: 49 pages)

Abstract: Based on data collected through the Rhode Island Emergency Shelter Information Project and published in its three-year study, the Task Force on Serving Rhode Island's Homeless has developed this report as a blueprint to address the issues of homelessness and affordable housing. To effectively respond to these problems, resources must be devoted to each of four stages of a housing assistance continuum: prevention programs; emergency shelter programs; transitional support programs; and permanent housing initiatives.

Order #: 7775

Authors: Rickards, L.D., Leginski, W., Randolph, F., Oakley, D., Herrel, J.M., Gallagher, C.,
Title: Cooperative Agreements for CMHS/CSAT Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness: An Overview.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 1-15, 1999. (Journal Article: 15 pages)

Abstract: In 1996, the Center for Mental Health Services and the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment launched a two-phased, three-year initiative to document and evaluate the effectiveness of homelessness prevention interventions that focus on persons with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders who are formerly homeless or at-risk for homelessness, and who are engaged with the mental health and/or substance abuse treatment system(s). This article describes the background, logic model, goals, and structure of the CMHS/CSAT Collaborative Program to Prevent Homelessness (authors).

Order #: 3118

Authors: Roman, N.P., Woffe, P.B.
Title: Web of Failure: The Relationship Between Foster Care and Homelessness.
Washington, DC: National Alliance to End Homelessness, 1995. (Report: 11 pages)

Abstract: The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship between foster care and homelessness and to determine if there is an overrepresentation of people with foster care histories in the homeless population. To examine these issues, the authors used four sources of information: (1) existing research on the connection between foster care and homelessness: (2) data collected from organizations that serve homeless people and that gather information on their clients' foster care history; (3) data obtained directly from a sample of homeless people; and (4) case studies of people who are or were homeless and who have a foster care history. The principle findings include: (1) people with foster care histories are overrepresented in the homeless population; (2) those with foster care histories are more likely to have their own children in foster care; and (3) very frequently, homeless people had multiple placements as children (authors). AVAILABLE FROM: National Alliance to End Homelessness, 1518 K Street, NW, Suite 206, Washington, DC 20005, (202) 638-1526.

Order #: 7777

Authors: Sacks, J.Y., Sacks, S., Harle, M., De Leon, G.
Title: Homelessness Prevention Therapeutic Community (TC) for Addicted Mothers.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 33-51, 1999. (Journal Article: 19 pages)

Abstract: This article describes a homelessness prevention therapeutic community (TC) for addicted mothers and their children developed in response to increasing numbers of homeless addicted mothers and families entering the Philadelphia shelter system. The program uses TC principles and methods as the foundation for recovery and the structure within which the homelessness prevention interventions unfold. The chapter describes the program's conceptual framework and logic model, setting, client profiles, goals, and interventions. The outcome evaluation compares the effectiveness of the homelessness prevention TC with a standard TC on both traditional outcomes and prevention outcomes. The authors state this program has considerable significance for policy and planning, especially for the development of integrated mother-child programs and for the application of TC principles and methods to homelessness prevention (authors).

Order #: 3114

Authors: Satel, S.
Title: Out in the Cold: A Better Way to Help the Homeless.
New Republic: Oct. 3, 1994. (Magazine Article: 2 pages)

Abstract: This article discusses the Clinton administration's proposal to combat homelessness. According to the author, the government's written proposal, Priority Home! The Federal Plan to Break the Cycle of Homelessness, still leaves many homeless people out in the cold because it does not adequately address the issue of treatment for homeless persons with serious mental illnesses. The Clinton proposal would have homeless persons with mental illnesses receive care from mainstream public mental health and substance abuse programs. Not only are these treatment sources already inadequate for this special population, but 30 states have acknowledged that they can serve only 40% of their residents with mental illnesses in community mental health centers (CMHCs). The author contends that without greater financing, CMHCs could not possibly absorb all of the homeless people with serious mental illnesses.

Order #: 1397

Authors: Schwartz, D.C., Devance-Manzini, D., Fagan, T.
Title: Preventing Homelessness: A Study of State and Local Homelessness Prevention Programs.
New Brunswick, NJ: American Affordable Housing Institute, 1991. (Report: 96 pages)

Abstract: This report summarizes the results of a joint and collaborative effort by the National Housing Institute and the American Affordable Housing Institute at Rutgers University. It describes the methods, funding, staffing, achievements and problems of seven major state and local homelessness prevention programs. Section one summarizes the methodology and the conclusions that seem warranted by the study. Section two, presents seven specific program analyses. AVAILABLE FROM: National Housing Institute, 439 Main Street, Orange, NJ 07050, (973) 678-8437. (COST: $25.00)

Order #: 7774

Authors: Shinn, M., Baumohl, J.
Title: Rethinking the Prevention of Homelessness.
Washington, DC: Presented at the National Symposium of Homelessness Research, October 29-30, 1998. (Presentation: 34 pages)

Abstract: In this essay, the authors examine existing measures to prevent homelessness. The logic and critical terminology of prevention is discussed. The authors also review research on the effectiveness of programs that aim to prevent homelessness. The authors conclude that most programs intended to prevent homelessness do useful things for needy people, but they seem to have only a marginal impact on the prevention of homelessness. They recommend that homelessness prevention be re-oriented from efforts to work with identified at-risk persons to projects aimed at increasing the supply of affordable housing, sustainable sources of livelihood, and the social capital of impoverished communities (authors).

Order #: 7858

Authors: Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D., Knickman, J.R., Jiminez, L., Duchon, L., James, S., Krantz, D.H.
Title: Predictors of Homelessness Among Families in New York City: From Shelter Request to Housing Stability.
American Journal of Public Health 88(11): 1651-1657, 1998. (Journal Article: 7 pages)

Abstract: This article examines predictors of entry into shelter and subsequent housing stability for a cohort of families receiving public assistance in New York City. Interviews were conducted with 266 families as they requested shelter and with a comparison sample of 298 families selected at random from the welfare caseload. Respondents were reinterviewed five years later. Demographic characteristics and housing conditions were the most important risk factors for shelter entry, and enduring poverty and disruptive social experiences also contributed. Five years later, four fifths of sheltered families had their own apartment. Receipt of subsidized housing was the primary predictor of housing stability among formerly homeless families. The authors conclude that housing subsidies are critical to ending homelessness among families (authors).

Order #: 621

Authors: Smith, S.J.
Title: New Thinking About the Homeless: Prevention, Not Cure.
Governing, 24-29, February 1988. (Magazine Article: 6 pages)

Abstract: The author discusses the increase in families among the homeless, the primary causes and regional strategies to prevent homelessness among this group. A brief discussion of homeless persons with mental illnesses and two New York City outreach programs developed for this subpopulation is included.

Order #: 1468

Authors: Stoner, M.R.
Title: Inventing a Non-Homeless Future: A Public Policy Agenda for Preventing Homelessness.
New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1989. (Book: 387 pages)

Abstract: This book calls attention to the alarming fact that homelessness in America is increasing at the rate of twenty to twenty-five percent each year, despite the growing number of services developed to help homeless people. The major position in this book is that emergency responses such as shelters, soup kitchens, and turkeys at Thanksgiving and Christmas must shift to emphasize preventing homelessness in the first place. The author relates the social problem of homelessness to broader issues in society and recommends a series of preventive strategies to keep people at work, with their families, on decent welfare benefits, in affordable housing, or in mental health settings. All of these measures can keep people within the circle of housing (author).

Order #: 809

Authors: Stoner, M.R.
Title: Beyond Shelter: Policy Directions for the Prevention of Homelessness.
Social Work 25(4): 7-11, 1989. (Journal Article: 5 pages)

Abstract: The author discusses homelessness in relation to broader issues in the economy, the housing sector, and social services and recommends a series of preventive strategies that will keep people at work, with their families, on decent welfare benefits, in affordable housing, or in mental health settings. The analysis of homelessness, its antecedents, and strategies for preventing homelessness delineates the basic elements of innovation needed to provide housing and social supports for those whose homelessness is a symptom of social pathology. Acknowledging that prospects of closing down shelter systems are dim, the author suggests that it remains possible to halt further growth in these systems before they settle into permanent institutional arrangements resembling historical precedents of institutionalization (author).

Order #: 25

Authors: Stroul, B.A.
Title: Community Support Systems For Persons With Long-Term Mental Illness: Questions and Answers.
Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988. (Brochure: 27 pages)

Abstract: Although many aspects of the Community Support Program (CSP) have been altered during this past decade, its concept community support system (CSS) and its integral components has remained constant. As a program concept for states to use in comprehensive, community-based mental health systems planning efforts to meet state and Federal (P.L. 99-660) requirements, the CSS model offers a valuable framework. The components of a CSS represent the array of services and opportunities that an adequate service system should include for the target population - crisis care, prevention of secondary disabilities, rehabilitation, and long-term support - all to be provided in the community. This booklet represents the current knowledge on community support systems including 10 years of demonstration programs, evaluation, learning community conferences, and research (author).

Order #: 5831

Authors: Susser, E., Valencia, E., Conover, S., Felix, A., Tsai, W., Wyatt, R.J.
Title: Prevention of Homelessness Among Mentally Ill Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Critical Time Intervention.
New York, NY: Columbia University / New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1996. (Unpublished Paper: 33 pages)

Abstract: This paper describes a study that examined a strategy to prevent homelessness among individuals who have serious mental illness. The strategy provides a bridge between institutional and community care. The Critical Time Intervention (CTI) was tested using 96 men who have serious mental illness and were entering community housing from shelters. The men were randomly divided into two categories: (1) nine months of CTI; or(2) Usual Services Only (USO). They were then tracked for 18 months. Results indicate that over the tracking period, the average number of nights homeless was 30 for CTI and 91 for USO. Survival curves showed that after the nine-month period of active intervention, the difference between the groups did not diminish. The authors contend that strategies that focus on a critical time of transition can be used in the prevention of homelessness for individuals with mental illness, and possibly also in other aspects of care (authors).

Order #: 6411

Authors: Susser, E., Valencia, E., Conover, S., Felix, A., Tsai, W., Wyatt, R.J.
Title: Preventing Recurrent Homelessness Among Mentally Ill Men: A 'Critical Time' Intervention After Discharge from a Shelter.
American Journal of Public Health 87(2): 256-262, 1997. (Journal Article: 7 pages)

Abstract: The authors describe a study that examined a strategy to prevent homelessness among individuals with severe mental illness by providing a bridge between institutional and community care. Ninety-six men with severe mental illness who were entering community housing from a shelter were randomized to receive nine months of a "critical time" intervention plus usual services or usual services only. The primary analysis compared the mean number of homeless nights for the two groups during the 18-month follow-up period. Results show, over the 18-month follow-up period, the average number of homeless nights was 30 for the critical time intervention group and 91 for the usual services group. Survival curves showed that after the nine-month period of active intervention, the difference between the two groups did not diminish. The authors conclude that strategies that focus on a critical time of transition may contribute to the prevention of recurrent homelessness among individuals with mental illness, even after the period of active intervention (authors).

Order #: 8032

Authors: Tsemberis, S.
Title: From Streets to Homes: An Innovative Approach to Supported Housing for Homeless Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities.
Journal of Community Psychology 27(2): 225-241, 1999. (Journal Article: 17 pages)

Abstract: This article describes a supported housing program that provides immediate access to permanent independent housing to individuals who are homeless and have psychiatric disabilities. Following housing placement, assertive community treatment (ACT) teams provide treatment, support, and other needed services. The residential stability of tenants in this supported housing program was compared to that of tenants in a linear residential treatment program that serves the same population, but uses a step-by-step sequence of placements moving to supervised independent living. The 139 tenants of the supported housing program achieved a housing retention rate of 84.2% over a three-year period while the rate for 2,864 residents of the comparison program was only 59.6% over a two-year period. Additional data from direct interviews with the supported housing tenants were used to identify factors that predicted client participation in, and satisfaction with, particular services received (author).

Order #: 8247

Authors: Tsemberis, S., Asmussen, S.
Title: From Streets to Homes: The Pathways to Housing Consumer Preference Supported Housing Model.
Alcohol Treatment Quarterly 17(1/2): 113-131, 1999. (Journal Article: 19 pages)

Abstract: This article describes essential elements of the Consumer Preference Supported Housing (CPSH) Model of homelessness prevention in use at Pathways to Housing, Inc. in New York City. This intervention prevents homelessness by engaging and housing homeless substance abusers with psychiatric disabilities whom other programs have rejected as "treatment resistant" or "not housing ready." The CPSH model is built on the belief that housing is a basic right for all people. As opposed to the housing continuum model, housing is based on consumer choice and is not connected to compliance or treatment. Housing is provided immediately, and there are separate criteria for housing and treatment needs. Support services are aimed at integration of mental health and substance abuse services (authors).

Order #: 8258

Authors: United States Conference of Mayors.
Title: Preventing Homelessness with a Coordinated Strategy: Best Practices of Mayors and Homeless Service Providers.
Washington, DC: U.S. Conference of Mayors, December 1998. (Report: 48 pages)

Abstract: This publication was prepared for release with the 14th Annual "Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1998." Thirteen of the 30 cities surveyed for that report have provided descriptions of outstanding coordinated strategies to prevent homelessness. These cities are: Alexandria, VA.; Burlington, VT; Chicago, IL; Kansas City, MO; Louisville, KY; Nashville, TN; Philadelphia, PA; Phoenix, AZ; St. Louis, MO; San Antonio, TX; Santa Monica, CA; San Francisco, CA; and Seattle, WA. AVAILABLE FROM: U.S. Conference of Mayors, 1620 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, (202) 293- 7330,

Order #: 2392

Authors: United States Congress.
Title: Speaker's Task Force on Homelessness: Report to the Speaker--Findings and Recommendations.
Washington, DC: Speaker's Task Force on Homelessness, 1993. (Report: 90 pages)

Abstract: This report reviews the findings and recommendations of the United States Congress Speaker's Task Force on Homelessness, which was organized in early 1993 at the request of President Clinton. The report includes the Task Force's mission statement that mandates the development of policies and/or programs that reduce homelessness through better intervention and prevention. Also included is a review of recent demographic trends in the United States as they relate to homelessness, especially in terms of the allocation of national resources. Some of the Task Force recommendations include: improve and increase access to affordable housing; ensure economic security; provide necessary services to prevent homelessness; and change the national approach to homelessness.

Order #: 1378

Authors: United States General Accounting Office.
Title: Homelessness: Too Early to Tell What Kinds of Prevention Assistance Work Best.
Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990. (Report: 42 pages)

Abstract: The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 directed the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to study and report on the various efforts available to prevent people from becoming homeless. Six federal programs provide funds that could be used to supplement state and local homeless prevention efforts. While GAO recognizes the need for long-term solutions to the problem of homelessness, such as affordable housing, education, and the job training, this report focuses on short-term assistance at the federal, state, and local levels aimed at helping people threatened with becoming homeless. AVAILABLE FROM: U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, (202) 512-6000. (

Order #: RCED-90-89).

Order #: 239

Authors: United States Senate.
Title: S.2608: To Prevent Homelessness and to Provide A Comprehensive Aid Package for Homeless Individuals.
Washington, DC: U.S. Senate, June,1986. (Legislation: 65 pages)

Abstract: This Senate bill was written to prevent homelessness and to provide a comprehensive aid package for homeless individuals. It contains three major titles: Emergency Relief for the Homeless (Title I), Prevention of Homelessness (Title II), and Increased Low Income Housing (Title III). The bill includes several sections relating specifically to homeless individuals who have mental illnesses: grants for health and mental health services; HUD regulations to ensure individuals with mental illnesses have access to subsidized housing; amendments to the Social Security Act establishing mental illness as a presumptive disability, extending SSI benefits during a hospitalization period of three months or less, and calling for outreach and pre-release application for SSI benefits for individuals returning to the community. The bill also calls for food stamp applications to be combined with the pre-release SSI applications. In addition, the bill establishes funding for technical assistance to community groups establishing group homes for persons who have mental illnesses.

Order #: 7484

Authors: Valencia, E., Susser, E., Torres, J., Felix, A., Conover, S.
Title: Critical Time Intervention for Homeless Mentally Ill Individuals in Transition from Shelter to Community Living.
In Breakey, W.R. and Thompson, J.W. (eds.), Mentally Ill and Homeless: Special Programs for Special Needs. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers, 75-94, 1997. (Book Chapter: 20 pages)

Abstract: Critical Time Intervention (CTI) was designed to prevent homelessness among individuals suffering from severe mental illnesses by stabilizing them in the period of transition to living in the community. CTI was tested in a randomized clinical trial between 1990 and 1994 at the Columbia-Presbyterian Mental Health Program for Homeless Individuals at the Fort Washington shelter for men in New York City. Preliminary analysis of the results indicated that the intervention is effective in reducing recurrent homelessness among mentally ill individuals. The authors conclude that if the final results confirm its effectiveness, CTI could be implemented in many programs for mentally ill individuals who are homeless (authors).

Order #: 2077

Authors: VandenBos, G.R.
Title: U.S. Mental Health Policy: Proactive Evolution in the Midst of Health Care Reform.
American Psychologist 48(3): 283-290, 1993. (Journal Article: 8 pages)

Abstract: Proposing that the United States must explicitly establish a multifaceted national mental health policy that emphasizes prevention, outpatient care, and rehabilitation, the author highlights some of the current inadequacies of the federal health and mental health policies to further prove that the United States needs health care reform. In addition, the author expands his discussion of health care reform to address who has a right to health care and what "managed competition" might look like (author).



National Resource Center
on Homelessness and Mental Illness

Policy Research Associates, Inc.
345 Delaware Avenue
Delmar, NY 12054
800-444-7415     fax: 518-439-7612